【ethereum blockchain developer course】

Beta Finance received a strategic investment in July this year. Investors inclethereum blockchain developer courseude Spartan Group, ParaFi Capital, Multicoin Capital, DeFiance Capital and Delphi Digital. Generally speaking, the investors have a pretty good background.

In response to this problem, Euler’s plan is to use Dutch auctions in liquidation, which can ease the joint bid of liquidators and may also obtain lower asset liquidation losses for mortgagors. At the same time, Euler also provides a discount acceleration mechanism for the collateral provider, so that he is eligible to conduct self-liquidation before the liquidator conducts the Dutch auction and reduce the mortgagor's loss. The above two measures are to restrict miners from grabbing excessive MEV fees in the liquidation, so as to improve the overall security of the system in the liquidation storm.tron coin halvingIn order to further reduce the transaction cost of liquidators in liquidation, Euler also borrowed the stable pool model pioneered by the Liquity protocol and expanded it into a multi-collateral stable pool form, allowing lenders to provide liquidity to the stable pool of each loan market. Support liquidation.

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Liquidity providers in the stable pool earn liquidation collateral rewards by depositing eToken (a deposit certificate of the Euler protocol, similar to Compound's cToken). When the liquidation is in progress, the liquidator directly uses the liquidity from the stable pool to repay the debts of the borrower, and will proportionally reward the liquidation collateral obtained to the stable pool, that is, the lender can eventually replace it during the liquidation period. The currency is passively converted into liquidation mortgage assets.For example: Euler provides a stable pool for the USDT that lends assets. The lender who is willing to participate in the stable pool can deposit their own USDT deposit certificate eUSDT into the stable pool as the counterparty of the liquidator, so that the liquidator is auctioning After obtaining the mortgaged assets, the mortgaged assets are replaced with the deposit users of the stable pool at a discounted price (after deducting their own income), which is equivalent to that the users of the stable pool purchase the collateral at a discounted price.Compared with Liquity which only supports the LUSD stable pool, Euler's multi-token stable pool contains specific types of tokens that have not been disclosed, but it is believed that it will still be based on stable currencies or mainstream currencies.The advantage of adopting this mechanism is that the agreement believes that when the borrower reaches the liquidation threshold, the liquidator can use the internal liquidity source to immediately liquidate, without the need to exchange assets from a third-party trading platform, which greatly eases the liquidator When the market fluctuates sharply, the internal clearing price is inconsistent with the external platform price, and the high transaction slippage causes the liquidator to lose or fail.In addition, Euler does not intend to use an external oracle, but uses the time-weighted average price (TWAP) of assets on Uni V3 and WETH to measure the ratio of assets to liabilities.

In the information that Euler has released, it has not disclosed the total amount of its governance token Euler, the distribution method, and the unlocking time. But it has made a preliminary outline of the functions and scenarios of its tokens. Euler will follow Compound's governance paradigm, and its governance functions include the ability to determine the level of assets, important parameters of the agreement, and the framework of governance itself. In addition, Euler also has a Vault mechanism, which can ensure the security of the agreement through staking.Since the product has not yet been launched, the risk parameters of project assets and other information have not yet been disclosed. In terms of contracts, Euler has officially disclosed three contract security partners, including Certora, Halborn, Solidified, and ZK Labs (the two jointly issued reports), and they have obtained two contract audit reports. Since Euler has introduced more innovative mechanisms, the amount of native code is also large. The issue of contract security is the top priority, and the team still attaches great importance to it.The fee rate is the fee charged to GMV, which can be the transaction fee of the blockchain, the transaction fee of Dapp, or the interest rate of the loan.

Income calculation formula:GMV * Take Rate = RevenueTotal transaction volume * rate = project revenue (total fees paid)The total revenue is distributed between the agreement and its Token holders and supplier participants (miners/validators, liquidity providers, lenders, etc.). For early-stage projects, 100% of the revenue is usually distributed directly to supplier participants. In the long run, the revenue sharing model will be more diversified, and the agreement and its owners can also get a share of the total revenue.

Agreement revenue represents the cash flow of the agreement. The agreement collects costs from users and is calculated as a percentage of total revenue.The difference between agreement income and income

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Revenue is the amount that users pay for the use of the contracted service. These revenues are obtained by the supplier participants who provide the basic service, and the contractual revenue refers to the amount of revenue actually obtained by the Token. This actually represents the bottom value of the agreement, which is the profit margin. In other words, just as early-stage startups and growth companies do not pay dividends to shareholders, not every agreement allocates cash flow to Token.Cost refers to how much of the agreement income is used for grants, wages, and audit fees. That is, the sum of all costs and expenses paid according to the implemented on-chain governance recommendations.Income: How much funds are distributed to Token holders as dividends, ie = agreement income-cost and difference.To sum up in one sentence, revenue is the amount that users pay to the agreement, which is mainly the income brought by the provider of the underlying service, and the agreement income is the cumulative income brought by Token. Agreement revenue represents profit and is the basis of the agreement.

The agreement income of each project depends on the fee structure of the agreement itself. Different income models complicate the calculation of agreement income. Below is an overview of the agreement revenue calculations for four NFT and DeFi projects.How is agreement income distributed to token holders?Take the example of MakerDao. Makerdao issues Dai to collateral providers, and users need to repay the principal and pay fees when unlocking the collateral. After the fees are paid to the agreement, they will be accumulated in the agreement's internal balance sheet. When the accumulated fees reach 10,000,000u Dai, they will be auctioned to obtain the agreement's governance token MKR. After that, MKR is burned (aka destroyed), thereby reducing the circulation of MKR. This process will be repeated continuously.Participants of agreement income

The four types of participants in the distribution agreement income are classified as follows:Any supplier participant (LP, lender, miner, keeper/liquidator);

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Any demand-side participant (DSR depositor, Nexus Mutual claimant);Supplier participants who own tokens (PoS verifier, 0x MM, Keep signer);

Token owner;Case: Axie Infinity agreement revenue calculationIn the past, Axie Infinity’s income came from land sales, Axie sales, transaction platform fees, and breeding fees. According to the old white paper of Axie Infinity, the Axie Infinity ecosystem has generated more than 6000 ETH in revenue.Axie Infinity will operate using a game-as-a-service model, and new features will be introduced over time. Axie can earn income by selling Axies, land, cosmetics, and in-game consumables. In addition, when players want to upgrade their game characters, participate in tournaments, and create new assets, fees will be charged.Once the pledge dashboard is activated, the community finance department will begin to accumulate fees. All expenses and income generated by Axie Infinity will be deposited in a community vault managed by AXS holders.Currently, these are the main expenses in the Axie field:

The breeding fee is paid by AXS and used to breed Axies.14.25% of the Axie market expenses are derived from the successful sale of Axie NFT assets: Axies, land and land projects.

Axie Infinity has multiple sources of income. For example, every time you buy and sell Axie bio, you need to pay 4.25% of the market fee. The second source of income is the cost of 4 AXS (currently changed to 2AXS), which is used to breed Axies to create new pets. With the influx of new users every day, purchase and reproduction, the pressure is increasing, which creates a large number of charging opportunities.As of September 14, AXS hit a record high of $95. A nearly 33-fold increase in three months. Analyzing the reasons, there are the following points:

Data growthAccording to data from Axie World, at the time of writing this report, 43777 people are playing every day, and more than 45,000 Ethereum users hold Axies. The most significant is the growth of Axie Infinity's protocol revenue. The figure below shows the proportion of protocol revenue of the top ten Dapps. Since June, the proportion of Axie Infinity has exploded on a large scale. The explosive growth of TVL and revenue is the fuse of the skyrocketing tokens. For example, the previous explosion of Matic and Aave's lock-up volume has affected the price of Token.

Behind the popularity of Axie Infinity, it is inseparable from the support of Yield Guild Games (YGG), a game guild in the Philippines. According to public information, YGG was established in 2020. Due to the impact of the epidemic, many people lost their jobs, and the unemployment rate was once as high as 40%. The play-to-earn model of chain games came into their sight and became the main source of income.YGG also proposed the Axie scholarship. Because getting started with Axie Infinity requires three Axies, YGG assigns them 3 Axies as a team. This group of players has almost no early sunk costs when entering the game. The borrowed Axie is used as the initial production tool in the game and earns in the game. SLP Token.Many Dapps built on Ethereum suffer from network congestion problems. But few applications will build their own test chain, and usually choose Layer 2 expansion solutions (such as Polygon and Optimism). Even Uniswap launched the Uniswap V3 version on the Ethereum mainnet and Optimism instead of building its own expansion plan.But this is not the case with Axie. As early as June 2020, Axie Infinity began to build its own side chain. After a one-year period, Axie moved to Ronin in early May this year. After the migration, everything in the Axie universe happened on the Ronin sidechain and bridged to Ethereum when needed. Currently, SLP tokens and AXS tokens are mainly bridged to Ethereum; and ERC-721 assets in Axie (including Axie NFTs, Land NFTs, and Items NFTs) cannot yet be transferred through this bridge.

The explosion of Axie Infinity was largely Ronin's contribution because it solved the congestion problem of Ethereum. As a reference, Ronin's deposit assets exceeded 500 million U.S. dollars, and Ronin wallet downloads exceeded 1 million times.Axie currently has more than 600,000 daily active players; its Discord server is the core of the community, with more than 540,000 members. When the community becomes huge, competitors of the same type will become difficult to replicate. The game can be copied, but it is difficult for players to copy. Due to user conversion costs and network effects (network efficiency is reflected in the number of users and the amount of funds), large-scale communities have become the moat of Axie Infinity.

Play-to-earn modeLet me talk about several game modes, namely Free-to-Play and Play-to-Earn. Most traditional games are Free-to-Play. The game provides players with complete game content for free, and makes money by selling virtual game items such as skins and emoticons. The mobile game "Glory of the King" is the representative of Free-to-Play.

Play-to-earn is a new model that rewards players for the time and energy spent playing games and developing the game ecosystem. Axie Infinity is a game between players. The economy is 100% owned by players. Compared with selling skins and props, the team pays more attention to the development of the economy between players. The following is written in Axie Infinity's white paper:Axies are created by players using in-game resources (SLP and AXS tokens) and selling them to new players/other players. Holders of AXS tokens are like governments that receive tax revenue. Game resources and props are tokenized, which means that these tokens can be sold to anyone on the open market.

Simply put, players can get SLP token rewards through PvP and PvE battles and completing daily tasks. Users can use SLP and AXS to breed new Axies or sell Axie, SLP and AXS tokens in exchange for real-world income.According to reports from Axies, top PvP players can earn up to 600 SLP per day; but for ordinary players, they can earn up to 200 SLP. For Filipino players, this is a work to improve their lives.Economic modelAxie Infinity is a dual Token mechanism, and AXS, as a governance Token, clarifies the profit of the agreement. And the project party needs to increase prices in the secondary market through AXS, return part of the profits to the game and raise the SLP to extend the life of the game. SLP is a reward earned by players through the game and a core consumable for breeding Axie. And Axie infinity did not invest in marketing, but allowed players to retain most of their value, giving the game more opportunities for expansion.

Good news for investors & partnersIn late June 2021, Mark Cuban and Alexis Ohanian participated in a US$7.5 million Series A financing. Sky Mavis is also supported by major game publisher Ubisoft, and Axie Infinity has joined the Entrepreneurs Lab incubator project initiated by Ubisoft.

Case: OpenseaOpensea's agreement income calculation is relatively simple, and it charges a 2.5% handling fee. On September 12, Opensea’s agreement revenue reached $1.2 million.

Aave is a DeFi protocol that uses a liquidity pool to provide lending services, stable interest rates and lightning loans.In Aave v1, the borrower pays the lender the borrowing interest rate. When users borrow assets, they need to pay 0.00001% of the loan amount as the interest rate, which is the agreement service fee. 20% of this fee will be used to provide financial support for Aave's referral program, and the remaining 80% will be transferred to the agreement. In addition, when borrowers apply for flash loans, they also need to pay 0.09% of the loan amount as expenses. 70% of this money is used by the lender, and the remaining 30% will be allocated between the recommender and Aave based on the "28%" ratio.

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster