Looking at all the different Layer 2 general solutions, we found that the current Layer 2 does not have a perfect solution. Dcardano price inrifferent solutions have made a trade-off between safety and efficiency, either the former or the latter, but the most The bottom layer and the core effective solution can only be implemented on layer1, which is also the importance of Eth2 sharding.
In terms of outstanding borrowingsethereum香港, the current outstanding borrowing amount of all loan agreements is about 30 billion U.S. dollars.The total amount of loans in the loan agreement, data source: Debank
In terms of business volume, the established projects Aave, Compound and MakerDAO still firmly occupy the top three positions, and their TVL accounts for more than 70% of the entire lending market.However, the rise of emerging lending projects is also amazing. The top ten projects in TVL include Anchor on Terra (US$3.12 billion), Benqi on the avalanche agreement (US$1.23 billion), and Qubit (US$400 million) on BSC. Unlike the big three lending giants that originated in Ethereum, these fast-growing lending forces all come from Ethereum’s competitors, which is the hottest narrative at the moment-the new public chain.What's more surprising is that in addition to the earlier launch time of Anchor (in March this year), the official launch time of the other two projects is only less than one month.In terms of the type of lending business, whether it is the number of projects or the amount of funds, basic lending projects account for a higher proportion, followed by leveraged mining lending projects, and other relatively new ones such as risk-graded interest rate products. The business volume is currently relatively small.This research report will focus on newly born lending projects in the past 1-2 months with rapid business growth (TVL has entered the top 15 lending category), and Euler, a project with many innovative combinations in mechanism.
The following is a detailed analysis and analysis of each item.In the combing and analysis part, the author will present and analyze the product positioning, project characteristics, business conditions, token model and risk control of the four projects, in order to analyze these four emerging lending projects as a whole as possible.Sushi is not Maki, and Maki is not Sushi either
MOVR liquid mining project, community members will be responsible for how to operate the funds (0.25% of the supply! Nearly 10 million US dollars at current prices)Support Avalanche Rush Incentives – Polygon – xDai – Celo (our LP's transaction volume exceeds 75 million US dollars)All funds that join the community believe in this vision of DeFiAmazing items were first launched on Sushi, and will likely continue to be launched here!
Expand this team from 1-2 people to 24 peopleKeep Sushi's fun, open, "Degen", and radically different!
The future of France has never been so bright!On a personal level, I put Sushi before physical and mental health, relationships, family and friends. In the next month or two, I will slow down. It must be interesting to build on top of Sushi. Unfortunately, I will not post spam on Twitter. Maybe I will de-anonymize it a bit? Write an in-depth book...Who doesn't want a Hollywood-produced Sushi/DeFi version of "Social Network"? Ha ha. I might divide my BAYC ape into several parts for fun, and then airdrop it to everyone in this community.After all... We are 0xMaki in some ways, and we have no intention of leaving this space. I have joined the community for a long time, and I am ready to come back when the community needs it. I am a lifetime asset of you.Blockchain News, September 18 The intersection of blockchain and games will undoubtedly become a hot topic in many industries in the future-there are actually many similar topics. But in this field, there is a new trend that is very interesting, that is, play and earn (P2E) games.
The "two giants" in the game fieldIn the field of "playing and earning" games, the two most famous projects are Axie Infinity and YGG.Axie Infinity created an unprecedented type of game that is "play while earning", just like "Candy Legend" created the dominance of free-to-play games in 2012.At this stage, Axie Infinity already has more than 1.5 million daily active players, mainly in the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Venezuela, India and Vietnam. For thousands of users, playing Axie Infinity has become their source of livelihood, and sometimes the revenue provided by this game far exceeds their income from working locally. Although most players are not native users in the crypto industry, through viral word-of-mouth marketing, many people have learned about the Axie Infinity game. The explosive growth, global influence, and extensive revenue generation achieved by the Axie Infinity game is indeed impressive. The reason for this achievement is mainly because they created a new game model of "play and earn". In terms of gameplay, Axie Infinity is similar to Pokémon. Players need to breed and breed Axies, a cartoon character that looks like a salamander, and then participate in the battle. The difference is that instead of winning points, the winner gets the game’s native token-Smooth Love Potion (SLP). This token can be immediately transferred to another crypto asset or used as collateral, or Cashed as legal tender. Axies and the digital land of games can be bought and sold between individuals as NFTs, and they even launched a governance token (AXS) that allows holders to determine the future of the game.
Another project is Yield Guild Games (YFF), which is a "guild" aimed at the new "play while earning" economy. This union is managed by a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) for those who want to professionally play Axie Infinity and Other people who "play and earn" games provide "scholarship" incentives to share part of their income. Therefore, this decentralized autonomous organization holds NFTs from various Metaverse games, making its governance token YGG an index of game earning economy. Although the project is still in its infancy, there are already more than 4,500 "scholars" with weekly transactions exceeding US$1 million.In recent months, some other "play while earning" mode games have become more and more popular, such as CryptoBlades, Zed Run, Cometh, REVV, etc. In fact, in the "play while earning" mode games have obtained orders. After the jaw-dropping success, this game revolution is very meaningful for big-name game developers. This trend cannot be ignored. In the future, we may see some mature game industry participants begin to incorporate these ideas into their games, and Bring this game mode to a wider audience.
There are three major shackles in the traditional game industryGaming is an industry that covers the world: There are currently more than 2.7 billion gamers in the world, mainly in Asia, Europe and Latin America. In addition, games are firmly integrated into the daily lives of many people: 60% of Americans play video games in some form every day, and video game streaming has 1.2 billion viewers every year. For example, Fortnite is a popular product of Epic Games. Last year, there were more than 350 million live players per month and generated 5.1 billion U.S. dollars in revenue, which shows that even a single game can achieve great success. Some analysts predict that the value of the gaming industry will exceed US$300 billion in the next few years.
However, despite the promising development trajectory of the game field, there are still three major shackles:Shackle one, traditional game players don't really "own" anything. Players mainly buy clothing, weapons, props, etc. on in-game items, but even so, last year's consumption in this area still exceeded US$50 billion. However, in addition to improving player performance and game fun, these game items cannot be used for any other purpose, nor can they be sold, lent or mortgaged for any game items purchased by themselves. These purchase transactions are not real investments.Shackle two, the interoperability between traditional games is very limited. To a large extent, many games on the current market are still walled gardens: they are independent of different "game worlds" and have their own items and experiences. Of course, this problem is not surprising! Game developers want to gain complete independent control over their own creative efforts, but what if game developers can collaborate with each other in more complex ways?Shackle three, traditional games lack business model options. At this stage, more than 80% of total digital game revenue comes from free games (or "freemium games"). In some successful paid games, most of them only get income through the purchase of skins, which will also limit the design space of some developers. Form follows function. As more game developers launch new business models (such as secondary NFT sales commissions), new game forms will also appear.Why the "Playing and Earning" game can get a big explosionIn fact, there are five major trends that have driven the explosion of "play while earning" games:
Trend 1: The blockchain network continues to expand. Remember the network congestion caused by the "crypto cat" CryptoKitties game in 2017? But now, with the emergence of the second-tier Ethereum expansion protocol, a new high-throughput blockchain, and other scalability solutions, there has been a solid foundation for the vigorous development of blockchain native games;Trend 2: NFT becomes mainstream. Many innovations, including the ERC-721 standard, have spawned the recent upsurge in NFT applications. Game companies now have the tools to NFT games, and more importantly, the public can better understand why rare game assets are valuable.
Trend 3: DeFi tools and architectures are increasing. Many basic decentralized financial industry tools (for example, AMM automatic market makers) have been tested in actual combat and have been widely implemented. Game developers can combine these tools to realize game financialization and promote purchase, lending, mortgage and other basic financial activities Now they can all enter the game field smoothly.Trend 4: Web2 interoperability. Many traditional large-scale technology giants have also begun to join the decentralized ecosystem, and have also opened up a new distribution mechanism for encryption-driven games. For example, Apple’s recent changes to the App Store can make it easier for iOS users to directly access NFT-based “sides”. Play and earn” game.
Trend 5: Metaverse. "Meta universe" has become a new frontier of digital experience, and the rapid rise of this emerging concept has even aroused Facebook's interest.Summarize
This summer, Axie Infinity achieved explosive growth, and many people were also very excited about Yield Guild, which in turn promoted the flourishing of "play while earning" games. After this craze, traditional game giants and cryptocurrency thought leaders have also begun to pay attention to "play while earning" games-under this strong tailwind, what other projects will be built in the future is very worthy of attention. For investors exploring the field of "playing and earning" games, now is of course a very "fun" moment, but from a broader perspective, it also marks the occurrence of our views on labor, leisure and value Changes-therefore, the "play and earn" game is definitely an important trend we must pay attention to.If you say which one is the most brilliant chain in the second half of this year, there is no doubt that solana is worthy of its name. SOL was founded by former Qualcomm, Intel and Dropbox engineers at the end of 2017. Solana is high-performance, fast, generous and rich in the project, and the team has SBF. Blessing, these distinctive features have enabled solana's defi to be launched one after another since May, and reached a blowout level. This is mainly due to the continuous development of the market and ecology of solana, and three consecutive hackathons were held within a year. Most of the projects have been effectively incubated. Obviously, Solana's reputation has overtaken polkadot and become a new public chain giant.The specific situation is actually very simple. The ecological project parrot conducts IDO. According to official regulations, users can receive tokens when IDO is completed, and then they can trade at the same time. On the one hand, the enthusiasm for participation is high and the user base is large. Most people wanted to sell at a high price for the first time, which caused congestion on the chain and data overflow and collapse of most nodes. In the end, the network was paralyzed for more than ten hours. It can be said that similar incidents are almost hard to come across.On the one hand, the enthusiasm of users is indeed too high. On the other hand, the high-performance public chain also faces the risk of being questioned. Fortunately, after the official team released the new version of the program, the solana network returned to normal and everyone can continue to play.
However, this incident has given many people a thought as to what kind of public chain we need in the future.On the one hand, POW-type mining public chains such as Bitcoin face the problem of low TPS and cannot carry the high-demand transactions of the existing DEFI. On the other hand, chains such as Solana, fantom, and polygon are facing a tendency to become more centralized. When there is a peak, the network becomes unstable, and even this kind of network is paralyzed. However, it seems that there is still no good solution to get the advantages of both at the same time.
Why is the high TPS public chain unstable?Many people may have heard of the "Impossible Triangle" in the currency circle, that is, high performance, security and decentralization are not available at the same time. Security is one of the main directions at present, so high performance and decentralization It becomes the opposite, and solana mainly improves the transmission rate, that is, performance, so there are naturally certain shortcomings in decentralization.
However, this situation does not hurt a lot in the bull market. The rise of DEFI in the bull market is still based on practicality. Solana is obviously more practical, so this does not prevent capital from paying attention to it.But for other high-performance public chains, they may all face similar problems. When the user group's sentiment is high, the transfer on the chain reaches the upper limit of the load, and there is no certain protection measure, then the network may collapse, and Solana has funds. Yes, even if it collapses, the currency price is still relatively stable, and it has not fallen much. On the contrary, it shows that the ecological development is successful and the user participation is high. Compared with other public chains, if it collapses, can you still have such good luck? Probably not.
The POW chain still maintains good network security and decentralizationFor the early POW chains, their decentralization is still relatively high, such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum. The degree of decentralization of the network mainly depends on the decentralization of the true owners of computing power. Many people mistakenly believe that the current Bitcoin mining pools account for a large percentage of the computing power of the mining pool. If the mining pool is attacked, it is equivalent to the block producer being attacked, which will affect the network security. To a certain extent, this view is still partially flawed.The computing power we are talking about is mainly based on the actual autonomous distribution rights of users, rather than the operating status of the block node. For example, most mining pools are actually running in professional computer rooms. The computing power of mining pools is high. To a certain extent, it will lead to centralization, but the mining power of an individual can change at any time. That is to say, the mining rights of the mining pool are the result of the choice made by the miners, and this choice can be changed instantly. For example, cutting off computing power is also a matter of minutes. Non-POW nodes have to undergo a series of processes such as reselection and voting, which also delays a certain amount of time. Therefore, POW is relatively advantageous.For example, in the POW chain, when mining pool A is attacked or there is a problem with the node, in theory, the block generation speed on the chain will be greatly reduced at this time. A block in the previous 10 minutes may now take 15 minutes on average, unless it is time to adjust the difficulty. , But for miners, they can cut their own computing power to other mining pools, which completes the redistribution process of computing power. The mining pool's computing power is reshuffled without affecting the efficiency of the overall network, and blocks are generated. The time will soon return to the previous 10 minutes, which completes the adaptive adjustment of the network.
Therefore, the impact of attacking a certain mining pool node of Bitcoin and Ethereum on the network is relatively small, so why does the POW network not improve the efficiency of the chain?In fact, this is mainly because the POW chain requires a large number of calculations to determine the hash value, which increases the difficulty of tampering and forks to a certain extent, thereby ensuring security, although the current block generation speed of some POW chains is also Increase, but we can clearly compare the problem that may exist when the speed increases, that is, the problem of easy bifurcation.
Bitcoin is a block in 10 minutes, and it is not easy to forkEthereum has a block in about 13 seconds, and sometimes an uncle block is needed to ensure that the transaction does not fork
A public chain with a higher block generation rate has a block every two seconds. Except for the uncle block, there is a certain rejection rate when mining to ensure that there is no fork.The faster the chain, the higher the possibility of forking. Therefore, in order to ensure a complete chain, it can only bring a higher rejection rate or try to ensure the computing power while increasing the ability to perform multitasking at the same time. The fork will soon be strangled into the cradle.